Geophysics is an area of geology, which studies the Earth through physical phenomena. It is usually divided into Pure and Applied Geophysics. The former is, generally speaking, a little more academic, providing information for the study of internal structure of the Earth and its composition. The later comprises a group of techniques, which are used in order to solve practical human problems such as the prospecting of hydrocarbons, minerals and groundwater as well as studies regarding the environment, engineering, etc.
It is considered that the emergence of Geophysics occurred in the 17th century, with studies of Newton and Gilbert about the gravitational and magnetic fields of the Earth, respectively. On the other hand, applied geophysics began to exist at the end of the 19th century, when iron deposits were found from the Earth’s magnetic field detected from the diversion of compasses installed in topographical instruments.
Since then, the geophysics development has contributed to increase the knowledge about the Earth and its phenomenons. It has being applied to various areas such: Mining, Engineering, Environment, Groundwater, Seismology, etc.